في بيتنا كتاب
ترجمة جزء من كتاب " حماس من الداخل "
لـ / مهيب النواتي
هذه ترجمتي المتواضعة لجزء من الكتاب الذي أودع صاحبه السجن " حماس من الداخل " لكاتبه الفلسطيني / مهيب النواتي المعتقل في السجون السورية منذ أواخر عام 2010م ، والذي تم اعتقاله على الأراضي السورية أثناء تحضيره للجزء الثاني من الكتاب.
جاءت الترجمة بناء على اتفاق بيني وبين الكاتب عام 2004م لترجمة هذا الجزء لأغراض بحثية ودراسية.
من الجدير بالذكر أن الكاتب الفلسطيني قد لجأ إلى النرويج هو وعائلته بعد الأحداث التي أدت إلى الانقسام الفلسطيني عام 2007م.
Hamas from Inside
1- The origin:
Hamas was actually born in the beginning of the first Palestinian Intifada in 14 / 12 / 1987.
In the fifth article of Hamas charter, we can see that (the aim of the movement extends from the birth of the Islamic message and from the good ancestors). (1)
Also, (Hamas is considered as a wing of Muslim Brotherhood in
Muslim Brotherhood is an international organization). (2) Palestine
Learning of the origin of the Islamic movement of Muslim Brotherhood in
is an important key to know the origin of Hamas movement. Palestine
Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine:
The beginning of Muslim Brotherhood in
was in the middle of the thirties. Palestine
Its organizational structure was formed in 1946.
The Muslim Brotherhood in
and Egypt took
part in the Jordan
war in 1948. Palestine
This intervention helped the Muslim Brotherhood to spread in the
West Bank and Strip during 1948 –
1967. (3) Gaza
After the Israeli occupation of the rest of Palestinian land in 1967, the relationship was stopped between the Muslim Brotherhood movement in
and the mother movement in Palestine . Egypt
Although that, the leaders of Muslim Brotherhood in
managed to keep thought and method of the movement. Palestine
In the beginning of the seventies, the aim of some leaders of the movement was to restructure and activate the movement to realize their aim which is related with calling for the forming of the Muslim individual which lead to form the Muslim family which lead to form the Muslim society which lead to form the Islamic state .
These leaders such as Sheikh Ahmed Yasein , Abed Elfataah Dokhan and Mohammed Shamaa began to restructure the organizational construction of Muslim Brotherhood under a legal cover , they were given license by the Israeli military ruler to practice social , cultural and sporting activities , the most important associations were the Islamic assembly "Al-Mujama" and the Islamic association in Gaza .
The Islamic Assembly "Islamic Mujama":
The Islamic Assembly was established in 1973 but it was given license as an Ottoman association from the Israeli Authority in 1979. (4)
In the beginning, it was established as a mosque then a clinic, a sporting club, kindergarten and Zakat committee...etc were joined to the mosque.
The first group, who established the Assembly, was consisted of Sheikh Ahmed Yassein, Saleem Shorab, Ahmed Daloul and others.
Sheikh Ahmed Yassein was the main character among them; he became the leader of this group.
The Islamic Assembly supporters began to dominate the mosques in
The Islamic Assembly was not alone in the political field in Gaza Strip and the West Bank, there were Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Islamic Jihad Movement and Liberation Party, they chose Jihad policy to face Israeli occupation forces, they accused the Islamic Assembly of abandonment and they blame it to refuse the adoption of Jihad policy to liberty the occupied Palestine.
Some youths in the leadership of Muslim Brotherhood were affected by this accusation, they pressed the leadership of the assembly to adopt the Jihad policy but the leadership refused and insisted on its opinion until
7th December 1987.
Beginning of change:
The leadership of Muslim Brotherhood insisted on its opinion except Sheikh Hijazi al-Barbar.
A lot of youth supporters gathered around Hijazi al-Barbar during al-Katiba mosque in
city, he didn't follow the leadership
instructions, specially the instructions of Sheikh Ahmed Yassein (He considered
al-Barbar as his right-hand). Gaza
Hijazi al-Barbar held demonstrations in Gaza streets in 6th January 1980, more than 5000 demonstrators attacked institutions such as cinemas, places selling or serving alcohol and some foundations of Palestinian Communist Party such as Red Crescent Society and attempted to march on the home of its director Haydar Abed al-Shafi (A famous politician and he became chief of Palestinian delegation of negotiations in Madrid later on) but Israeli army stopped them. (5)
The events of 1980 were considered as a beginning of change, some leaders of Islamic Assembly changed their opinions.
Those events formed a beginning to adopt Jihad idea.
In spite of that, Sheikh Ahmed Yassein punished Hijazi al-Barbar for those events and did to diminish his role in the movement and the Islamic university.
Besides, Khalid al-Hindi was elected instead of him to be a chief of students' council.
Hijazi al-Barbar left Palestinian political field after he had had a lot of crises.
The first Intifada:
8th December 1987, a large Israeli lorry
collided with an Arabic car, there were 7 Palestinian martyrs.
The Palestinian street was boiling with range, this boiling turned into violent confrontations with Israeli Occupation Forces in
It was clear; the participation of Palestinian people in these confrontations would lead to dangerous results in the relationship between Israeli Occupation Forces and Palestinians in Gaza Strip and West Bank.
Palestine Liberation Organization declared its participation in the events, also Youth Movement "Shabiba" called its supporters in Islamic University and secondary schools to escalate the confrontations against Israeli Forces in streets and lanes then in the whole
While the factions of
Organization were meeting to form United National Leadership of Intifada,
Islamic Assembly leaderships tried to understand what happened and to define
their situation. Palestine
Islamic Resistance Movement "Hamas":
It was cold and raining while 7 leaders of Islamic Assembly were meeting in the house of Ahmed Yassein, they were: Abed al-Aziz Rantisi, Ibrahim al-Yazuri, Isa al-Nashar and Sheikh Ahmed Yassein, they talked about the events in
Palestinian street after Israeli
Occupation Forces had closed the Islamic university. (6)
Some leaders wanted to take part in the events; they refused not to take part in the confrontations against Israeli Occupation Forces. (7)
In the beginning, Sheikh Ahmed Yassein refused and insisted on his opinion, but he was afraid to loss the supporters for the Islamic project of Muslim Brotherhood if he didn't take part in Intifada. (8)
The leadership of Muslim Brotherhood suggested that they can take part in Intifada during a new movement and far from the name of Muslim Brotherhood or the Assembly; if the new movement was exposed to a strong blow, they would find a return line to the Islamic project of Brotherhood, they chose the name of this movement, it was (Islamic Resistance Movement) then they abbreviated it to Hamas.
Hamas became the legal baby of Muslim Brotherhood, it was born to take part in Intifada.
But Muslim Brotherhood decided not to adopt Hamas officially because of that fear.
So Hamas delayed the declaration of its charter for 8 months.
Anyway; the second article of its charter was a confession of the connection between Hamas and Muslim Brotherhood.
2 - Hamas charter:
To understand Hamas movement, you must read its charter.
As we said before, Hamas delayed the declaration of its charter for 8 months.
In spite of special circumstances of establishing the movement, Hamas charter affirms that Hamas was not established at random, it was established after planning and clarification.
(When the thought matured, the seed grew and the plant took root in the land of reality, detached from temporary emotion and unwelcome haste, the Islamic Resistance Movement erupted in order to play its role in the path of its Lord. In so doing, it joined its hands with those of all Jihad fighters for the purpose of liberating
. The souls of its Jihad fighters
will encounter those of all Jihad fighters who have sacrificed their lives in
the Palestine since it was conquered by the
Companion of the Prophet, be Allah’s prayer and peace upon him, and until this
very day). (9) land of Palestine
Also, as we said before, the thought of Muslim Brothers was to call for the forming of the Muslim individual which lead to form the Muslim family which lead to form the Muslim society which lead to form the Islamic state, far from violence, fighting and confrontation with the other.
This concept dominated the leaders of Muslim Brotherhood and put them in a big dilemma of when to call for Islam and when to let the youths face the Israeli occupation, so we can see that Hamas was considered as a clear decision for resistance by leaders of Islamic Assembly.
Hamas charter talked about reasons and goals of the movement:
(Hamas finds itself at a period of time when Islam has waned away from the reality of life. For this reason, the checks and balances have been upset, concepts have become confused, and values have been transformed; evil has prevailed, oppression and obscurity have reigned; cowards have turned tigers, homelands have been usurped, people have been uprooted and are wandering all over the globe. The state of truth has disappeared and was replaced by the state of evil. Nothing has remained in its right place, for when Islam is removed from the scene, everything changes. These are the motives. As to the objectives: discarding the evil, crushing it and defeating it, so that truth may prevail, homelands revert [to their owners], calls for prayer be heard from their mosques, announcing the reinstitution of the Muslim state. Thus, people and things will revert to their true place). (10)
Also, Hamas charter talked about relationship between Hamas and the other Islamic movements in Palestinian political field:
(Hamas views the other Islamic movements with respect and appreciation. Even when it differs from them in one aspect or another or on one concept or another, it agrees with them in other aspects and concepts. It reads those movements as included in the framework of striving [for the sake of Allah], as long as they hold sound intentions and abide by their devotion to Allah, and as along as their conduct remains within the perimeter of the Islamic circle. All the fighters of Jihad have their reward. The Hamas regards those movements as its stock holders and asks Allah for guidance and integrity of conduct for all. It shall not fail to continue to raise the banner of unity and to exert efforts in order to implement it, [based] upon the [Holy] Book and the [Prophet’s] Tradition). (11)
It talked in Article Twenty-Five about the National (wataniyya) Movements in the Palestinian arena:
([Hamas] reciprocated its respect to them, appreciates their condition and the factors surrounding them and influencing them, and supports them firmly as long as they do not owe their loyalty to the Communist East or to the Crusader West. We reiterate to every one who is part of them or sympathizes with them that the Hamas is a movement of Jihad, or morality and consciousness in its concept of life. It moves forward with the others, abhors opportunism, and only wishes well to individuals and groups. It does not aspire to material gains, or to personal fame, nor does it solicit remuneration from the people. It sets out relying on its own material resources, and what is available to it, [as it is said] “afford them the power you can avail yourself of.” [All that] in order to carry out its duty, to gain Allah’s favor; it has no ambition other than that. All the nationalist streams, operating in the Palestinian arena for the sake of the liberation of Palestine, may rest assured that they will definitely and resolutely get support and assistance, in speech and in action, at the present and in the future, [because Hamas aspires] to unite, not to divide; to safeguard, not to squander; to bring together, not to fragment. It values every kind word, every devoted effort and every commendable endeavor. It closes the door before marginal quarrels, it does not heed rumors and biased statements, and it is aware of the right of self-defense. Anything that runs counter or contradicts this orientation is trumped up by the enemies or by those who run in their orbit in order to create confusion, to divide our ranks or to divert to marginal things). (12)
The most important point is the relationship between Hamas and
Liberation Organization: Palestine
(The PLO is among the closest to the Hamas, for it constitutes a father, a brother, a relative, a friend. Can a Muslim turn away from his father, his brother, his relative or his friend? Our homeland is one, our calamity is one, our destiny is one and our enemy is common to both of us. Under the influence of the circumstances which surrounded the founding of the PLO, and the ideological invasion which has swept the Arab world since the rout of the Crusades, and which has been reinforced by Orientalism and the Christian Mission, the PLO has adopted the idea of a Secular State, and so we think of it. Secular thought is diametrically opposed to religious thought. Thought is the basis for positions, for modes of conduct and for resolutions. Therefore, in spite of our appreciation for the PLO and its possible transformation in the future, and despite the fact that we do not denigrate its role in the Arab-Israeli conflict, we cannot substitute it for the Islamic nature of
by adopting secular thought. For the Islamic nature of Palestine is part of our religion, and anyone
who neglects his religion is bound to lose. “And who forsakes the religion of
Abraham, save him who befools himself?” Sura II (Al-Baqra—the Co), verse 130
When the PLO adopts Islam as the guideline for life, then we shall become its
soldiers, the fuel of its fire which will burn the enemies. And until that
happens, and we pray to Allah that it will happen soon, the position of the
Hamas towards the PLO is one of a son towards his father, a brother towards his
brother, and a relative towards his relative who suffers the other’s pain when
a thorn hits him, who supports the other in the confrontation with the enemies
and who wishes him divine guidance and integrity of conduct). (13) Palestine
You can see that Hamas charter was not clear when it talked about the relationship between Hamas and
Organization, it didn't confess that PLO is the unique legal representative of
Palestinian people. Palestine
In Article Twenty-Eight, the charter talked about the relationship between Hamas and Arab countries:
(All those secret organizations, some which are overt, act for the interests of Zionism and under its directions, strive to demolish societies, to destroy values, to wreck answerableness, to totter virtues and to wipe out Islam. It stands behind the diffusion of drugs and toxics of all kinds in order to facilitate its control and expansion. The Arab states surrounding
are required to open their
borders to the Jihad fighters, the sons of the Arab and Islamic peoples, to
enable them to play their role and to join their efforts to those of their
brothers among the Muslim Brothers in Israel .
The other Arab and Islamic states are required, at the very least, to
facilitate the movement of the Jihad fighters from and to them. We cannot fail
to remind every Muslim that when the Jews occupied Holy Jerusalem in 1967 and
stood at the doorstep of the Blessed Aqsa Mosque, they shouted with joy:
“Muhammad is dead, he left daughters behind.” Palestine , by virtue of its being
Jewish and of having a Jewish population, defies Islam and the Muslims. “Let
the eyes of the cowards not fall asleep.”). (14) Israel
Hamas is a humane movement, you can find that in Article Thirty-One:
(Hamas is a humane movement, which cares for human rights and is committed to the tolerance inherent in Islam as regards attitudes towards other religions. It is only hostile to those who are hostile towards it, or stand in its way in order to disturb its moves or to frustrate its efforts. Under the shadow of Islam it is possible for the members of the three religions: Islam, Christianity and Judaism to coexist in safety and security. Safety and security can only prevail under the shadow of Islam, and recent and ancient history is the best witness to that effect). (15)
In Article Eleven, Hamas charter considered
as an Islamic Waqf: Palestine
(The Islamic Resistance Movement believes that the
has been an
Islamic Waqf throughout the generations and until the Day of Resurrection, no
one can renounce it or part of it, or abandon it or part of it. No Arab country
nor the aggregate of all Arab countries, and no Arab King or President nor all
of them in the aggregate, have that right, nor has that right any organization
or the aggregate of all organizations, be they Palestinian or Arab). (16) land
It explains the view of Hamas about Peaceful Solutions, [Peace] Initiatives and International Conferences:
([Peace] initiatives, the so-called peaceful solutions, and the international conferences to resolve the Palestinian problem, are all contrary to the beliefs of the Islamic Resistance Movement. For renouncing any part of
means renouncing part of the religion). (17) Palestine
Also, the charter talked about the Islamic education:
(We must accord the Islamic [young] generations in our area, an Islamic education based on the implementation of religious precepts, on the conscientious study of the Book of Allah; on the Study of the Prophetic Tradition, on the study of Islamic history and heritage from its reliable sources). (18)
Article Seventeen and Article Eighteen were about the role of Muslim women:
(The Muslim women have a no lesser role than that of men in the war of liberation; they manufacture men and play a great role in guiding and educating the [new] generation. The enemies have understood that role, therefore they realize that if they can guide and educate [the Muslim women] in a way that would distance them from Islam, they would have won that war... The women in the house and the family of Jihad fighters, whether they are mothers or sisters, carry out the most important duty of caring for the home and raising the children upon the moral concepts and values which derive from Islam; and of educating their sons to observe the religious injunctions in preparation for the duty of Jihad awaiting them). (19)
You can see that Hamas charter talked about the Role of Islamic Art in the war of liberation in Article Nineteen:
(Art has rules and criteria by which one can know whether it is Islamic or Jahiliyya art. The problems of Islamic liberation underlie the need for Islamic art which could lift the spirit, and instead of making one party triumph over the other, would lift up all parties in harmony and balance). (20)
Article Thirty was about the members of Other Religions:
(Hamas is a humane movement, which cares for human rights and is committed to the tolerance inherent in Islam as regards attitudes towards other religions. It is only hostile to those who are hostile towards it, or stand in its way in order to disturb its moves or to frustrate its efforts. Under the shadow of Islam it is possible for the members of the three religions: Islam, Christianity and Judaism to coexist in safety and security. Safety and security can only prevail under the shadow of Islam, and recent and ancient history is the best witness to that effect). (21)
Finally, Hamas explains, during its charter, its seven aspects:
· Its root is Muslim Brotherhood Movement.
· Its plain road is Islam (A way of life).
· Its method is Resistance.
· Its structure is from true Muslims.
· Perfect relationships with the others.
· Hamas is not a substitute for anyone.
· Its aspects are international and humane.
That is clear in Article Thirty-Six:
(Hamas, while breaking its path, reiterates time and again to all members of our people and the Arab and Islamic peoples, that it does not seek fame for itself nor material gains, or social status. Nor is it directed against any one member of our people in order to compete with him or replace him. There is nothing of that at all. It will never set out against any Muslims or against the non-Muslims who make peace with it, here or anywhere else. It will only be of help to all associations and organizations which act against the Zionist enemy and those who revolve in its orbit. Hamas posits Islam as a way of life; it is its faith and its yardstick for judging. Whoever posits Islam as a way of life, anywhere, and regardless of whether it is an organization, a state, or any other group, Hamas are its soldiers, nothing else. We implore Allah to guide us, to guide through us and to decide between us and our folk with truth. “Our Lord! Decide with truth between us and our folk, for Thou are the best of those who make decisions.” Sura VII (Al-A’raf—the Heights), verse 89). (22)
3- The Organizational Framework of Hamas Movement:
It's difficult to talk about the organizational framework of Hamas because the movement didn't publish any proclamation or announcement about its framework, also Hamas leaders refused to talk in details about it.
(Hamas Movement is a public and secret resistance movement, we don't want to speak about policy and internal regime of the movement, we have an advice council "Shorah" and a correct cooperation regime, also Hamas is Jihad movement and we have enemies, I can't tell you everything) Ahmed Yassein said in short. (23)
Some media resources talked about the movement structure in details or accidental.
Also I, the author, knew of confessions of some members of Hamas to Israeli investigators during the first Intifada while I was arrested in central
Jail in 1993 where I met some members of Hamas. (24) Gaza
To understand the organizational framework of Hamas, we must divide organizational work of Hamas into:
1 – The Political Organizational Framework:
Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) depended on the advice council "Shorah" in its work.
The advice council consisted of 50 – 70 persons; this council was an important part of the movement. (25)
It was difficult and complex to hold the council meetings perpetually; it was necessary to find a mini form of the advice council which consisted of a few members, they can take quick decisions, that mini form was the Political Office.
The Political Office:
It's the upper political organizational authority in Hamas Movement.
It's the representative of all sections of the movement inside and outside.
The sections of political office are divided into:
Inside: It was consisted of: Gaza, West Bank and prisons. Every section had one vote in political office and sometimes had more than one vote according to the density of movement in that area.
Outside: It was consisted of
, Jordan , Lebanon , ( Iran and USA Europe) as one section and the rest of other countries as
another section. Every area had one vote in political office.
The military group: The military group of Hamas tried to be far away from the other groups but it was a part of the movement, it represented its public and secret policy, so it had a vote in the political office.
* Khaled Mish'al is the chief of the political office of Hamas Movement.
Dr. Musa Abu Marzuq (political office founder and its first chief) and Imad al-Alami (Hamas representative in
members in the political office, also Mohammed Nazal and Ibrahim Ghusha, from Iran , were
members but they were replaced after they had decided to leave political field. Jordan
We can't define political office representatives inside
because their memberships are secret but we think that Ahmed Yassein was one of
Political office was founded by Dr. Musa Abu Marzuq; he restructured Hamas Movement after arresting Ahmed Yassein and a lot of leaders and members of the movement in 1989.
Abu Marzuq decided to form the political office and defined its work:
· Planning movement policy.
· Representing movement in its international relationships.
· Representing movement in its relationships with Palestine Liberation Organization and the other Islamic movements in Arab countries and the west.
· Also, Abu Marzuq formed two committees: "call for Islam" committee (International committee) and Jihad committee.
2 – The Regional Organizational Framework:
Ahmed Yassien divided Gaza Strip into 5 geographic areas: North Gaza – South Gaza – the middle area – Khan Youins and Rafah, also he divided West Bank into 7 areas: Alkhaleel – Bethlahem – Jerusalem – Ramallah – Nables – Tolkaram and Jenin.
Every area was independent and had its own general manager.
3 – The Operational Framework:
(The offices of the movement)
In 1986, the leadership of the Islamic Assembly formed the "call for Islam" and Aljihad Organization as a security office of the movement and as a nucleus of the military office after that.
Virtually, after the establishment of Hamas, this office formed a mainstay for the military office which was established also after the launch of Hamas. In the special circumstances during the first Intifada, Hamas had to form its offices according to these circumstances.
Hamas was able to develop itself with the development of Intifada, so Hamas formed some of offices which formed the organizational office of the Movement:
The events office:
It deals with daily events such as manifestations, protest marches, strikes, the erection of the barriers, encouragement of the civilians to take part in the funeral processions of the martyrs … etc.
This office preserves the daily life of civilians; continues the education process, regulates traffic and repels people who spread drugs or people who collaborate with the enemy through out a group which was named Islamic Thunderbolt Forces.
Besides, this group is related to the fieldwork leadership of Hamas Movement.
The events office continued its work until the coming of Palestinian Authority then it was finished and the Palestinian Authority took the reins of all matters.
The "call for Islam" office (Da'wa):
It’s one of the most important offices of the movement.
Its role is to recruit young people through the activities inside the mosque.
In spite of the simplicity of these activities inside the mosque and outside it, the importance of this group is to nominate the members for the other offices of the movement such as the security and military offices.
This group was established before the establishment of Hamas during the calling stage which was done by the actives of the Islamic Assembly.
The Da'wa office was developed during the first Intifada after the launch of Hamas.
The other offices of the movement:
Hamas formed new offices such as the media office and the military office.
Besides, Hamas developed some offices such as the security office and the foundations office.
1- The Islamic resistance movement (Hamas), the charter of the movement (unpublished document in
18/8/1988), page 4.
2- The same source, page 3.
3- Ali aljrbaoi , The Intifada and The Political leaderships in the West Bank and Gaza Strip , the first print , Beirut , Dar Altali’ah , April 1989, page 43 , 44 .
4- Meeting with Sheikh Ahmed Yasein (founder of Hamas Movement) in
5- Meeting with Hijazi Albarbar (an assistant of Sheikh Ahmed Yasein in 1981) in
6- Meeting with Sheikh Ahmed Yasein, precedent source.
7- Ya’ri , Ihod Washef , Zaei’ve , Intifada , translated by Dar Aljalil , the first print , Dar Algalil for publication , studies and researches , Amman , 1991 , page 194 .
8- Meeting with Sheikh Ahmed Yasein, precedent source.
9- Charter of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas), precedent source, page 1.
10- The precedent source, page 7.
11- The precedent source, page 23.
12- The precedent source, page 24.
13- The precedent source, page 26.
14- The precedent source, page 27.
15- The precedent source, page 29.
16- The precedent source, page 9.
17- The precedent source, page 12.
18- The precedent source, page 15.
19- The precedent source, page 17, 16.
20- The precedent source, page 17.
21- The precedent source, page 29.
22- The precedent source, page 35.
23- Meeting with Sheikh Ahmed Yasein (founder of Hamas Movement) in
24- Meeting with several of members of Hamas, in
Central Jail in March 1993, and in kitsio’ot Jail in May 1993. Gaza
25- Meeting with Sheikh Ahmed Yasein, precedent source.